Police said they arrested Ichiro Kojima, 22, after the train made an unscheduled stop today at Odawara station, west of Tokyo, following an emergency call that there was a knife-wielding man.
The apparently random attack took place at around 9:50 p.m.in the 12th vehicle of the Nozomi No. 265 bound for Shin-Osaka Station from Tokyo, which had just departed with 880 passengers aboard.
Police said two female passengers in their 20s were injured, though their conditions were not life-threatening.
Kojima told police that he is unemployed and from Okazaki, Aichi Prefecture. Another knife was found on the train.
The suspect of the stabbings on the shinkansen train told investigators that he felt "frustrated and wanted to kill someone".
Witnesses said passengers were in tears as they attempted to flee in panic.
Another passenger said: 'Everyone fled and fell like one domino falling after another. The Nozomi train was heading to Osaka from Tokyo. According to him, he didn't plan the attack and attacked the passengers of the train "only because I was highly annoyed".
According to the Kanagawa prefectural police and other sources, three passengers on the train were attacked.
He talked about suicidal thoughts before running away, she said.
The stabbing took place at 10 p.m. local time (1300 GMT) and caused panic on the train carrying some 800 passengers as it traveled from Tokyo to Osaka. (JR Tokai) announced it would move up its plan to install more security cameras in bullet trains.